HLTC-3 - Smart Vaccination

Product Use Case Summary

A smart vaccine delivery system can revolutionize immunization efforts by enhancing distribution efficiency, optimizing resource utilization, promoting equitable access to vaccines, and ensuring the integrity of the vaccine supply chain. By leveraging digital technologies, smart vaccines can address the challenges associated with traditional vaccine distribution, and can contribute to the global goal of preventing infectious diseases and safeguarding public health.

Seamless vaccine management and execution under compressed timelines requires organizations to automate as much as possible since manual processes are slow, prone to error, and overwhelming for staff. In turn, digital technologies can improve the management, distribution, and monitoring, and timeliness of vaccines. For smooth rollout, end-to-end vaccine management requires vaccine administration management, vaccine allocation, healthcare provider management, vaccine capacity management, transportation storage, and monitoring.

Stakeholders

  • Patients that are included in the vaccine program rollout

  • Healthcare providers providing vaccinations to beneficiaries

  • Ministry of health or central government body in charge of national health outcomes that are involved in the vaccination program

  • Pharmaceutical suppliers and intermediaries that need to be engaged for timely supply

  • Administrators that need to manage payments and/or labs of patients

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • SDG 3: Good Health and Well-Being

Building Blocks

Consent

Identity

Messaging

Payments

Registration

Scheduler

Workflow

Source Documents

Steps

1 - Outreach Communications

Using both targeted and widespread approaches to launch a proactive outreach campaign through SMS, email, and social media. The purpose is to inform the population about upcoming vaccination drives, benefits of the vaccination, eligibility criteria, and registration procedures.

Workflows

  • Client Communication to facilitate the spreading of vaccine awareness for target audience and encouraging participation

  • Client Education for educating potential target beneficiaries around the approach and objective(s), benefit(s), constraint(s), partner(s), etc. of the program

  • Content Management for the Ministry of Health to disseminate relevant educational and promotional content that local officers can use during on-the-ground outreach campaigns

  • Identification and Registration to target households and individuals eligible for vaccine

Building Blocks

Messaging

Scheduler

2 - Registration

Individuals can register online through their medical facility, roving healthcare practitioners, or with personal devices through a web portal or mobile app. The system securely collects basic information, contact details, and demographic data, streamlining the process for individuals and healthcare providers.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management for creating beneficiary user records

  • Data Collection and Reporting for capturing interview responses or observation during registration process

  • Identification and Registration for enrolled identified beneficiaries in the system , and to track households and targeted individuals

Building Blocks

Consent

Identity

Information Mediator

Registration

3 - Data Verification and Validation

Advanced identity verification mechanisms, such as biometric authentication or digital IDs, ensure the accuracy of user-provided information and prevent duplicate registrations. Other government databases (eg. ID, tax, land cadastre, etc.) can be used to fill in any missing gaps, verify and validate collected information, including authentication of all records.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management for storing and reviewing identification records and eligibility information of potential beneficiaries

  • Data Analysis and Business Intelligence for cross-referencing and verifying records across multiple registry sources, and reconciling gaps / overlaps

Building Blocks

Consent

Identity

Information Mediator

4 - Eligibility

The system cross-references registration data with eligibility criteria defined by health authorities. Individuals who meet the criteria are notified of their eligibility status either through SMS/USSD mobile technology or through a healthcare practitioner. Eligibility determination for vaccination can happen either before scheduling the appointment or at the start of the vaccination appointment.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management for storing and reviewing identification records and eligibility information of potential beneficiaries

  • Data Analysis and Business Intelligence for cross-referencing and verifying records across multiple registry sources, and reconciling gaps / overlaps

Building Blocks

Consent

Identity

Information Mediator

Messaging

5 - Schedule Appointments

Eligible individuals receive automated appointment scheduling options based on their preferred date, time, and vaccination center. The system optimizes appointment slots to manage crowd flow and reduce wait times.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management can be either automated or through an intermediary health care worker on the ground that is responsible for coordinating appointments on a centralized system

  • Work Planning and Coordination so health care providers and administrative staff can coordinate the timing/schedules of multiple patients they may be serving

Building Blocks

Information Mediator

Messaging

Scheduler

Workflow

6 - Vaccination

At the vaccination center, healthcare workers use the system to access individuals' vaccination records, verify identities, and record administered doses. The system ensures real-time integration with vaccine inventory to ensure demand doesn't outpace supply in any given timeframe.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management for identifying and recording patient interaction with healthcare workers and for determining follow-ups and storing patient history

  • Client Communication for sharing relevant updates, diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up with client

  • Data Collection and Reporting for capturing changes in beneficiary information

  • Work Planning and Coordination for referrals to specialists or connections with other hospitals, clinics, or lab and pharmacy services

Building Blocks

Consent

Information Mediator

Scheduler

7 - Supply Chain Management

The system monitors the entire vaccine supply chain, from manufacturing to distribution, ensuring that vaccines are transported and stored within the appropriate temperature and humidity ranges. Real-time alerts are triggered for any deviations, preventing spoilage. While supply chain management has many steps, in this use case we acknowledge that it is necessary to ensure that supply and demand is being met to prevent shortages and or excess supply in any given region.

Workflows

  • Supply Chain Management to manage the supply from production to vaccination

Building Blocks

Scheduler

Workflow

8 - Payment

Some vaccination campaigns may be partially or fully subsidized by the government. In that case, payments may not be required. Otherwise, payments can be collected either pre- or post-consultation. In the context where a digital financial service system is not employed, each beneficiary would be requested to pay via mobile money or to travel to the nearest designated pay-point and pay the fees by program-specific authentication. Money is transferred to the selected payment mechanism and is subsequently verified against the provider. For areas with payment requirements, the system facilitates secure online payment options. It generates digital invoices and receipts, simplifying the financial transaction process.

Workflows

  • Financial Services for processing vaccination fees

  • Client Case Management for identifying and authenticating individual that is making a payment

Building Blocks

Payments

9 - Certification

Once vaccination is completed the patient's immunization record can be updated and a digital certificate/vaccine passport issued that indicates the administered dose, date, and other important information.

Workflows

Identification and registration to link patient account with certificate/vaccine passport

Building blocks

Consent

Identity

Information Mediator

10 - Ongoing M&E

Healthcare providers and recipients can use the system to report any adverse events or side effects following vaccination. The system continues to monitor vaccinated individuals for adverse effects and tracks immunization coverage rates. It generates automated reports for health authorities to assess the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns.

Workflows

  • Client Case Management for ongoing monitoring and tracking of client performance, and integration to other registries for holistic view and reporting

  • Data Analysis and Business Intelligence / Decision Support / Data Collection and Reporting to analyze, update, and report programme output / performance information

  • Identification and Registration (with aid of geographic information services tool for potential use) in tracking / locating areas in relation to level of activities and adherence, or client household location

Building Blocks

Consent

Identity

Scheduler

Workflow

Contributors

  • Wesley Brown, GovStack Product Owner, Digital Impact Alliance

  • Sarah Farooqi, The Exchange Product Owner, Digital Impact Alliance

  • Sainabou Jallow, Business Analyst, Digital Impact Alliance

  • Dr. P. S. Ramkumar, GovStack, International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

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